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Hoo Labs Launches Oikos(OKS) Token Sale

Hoo Labs Launches Oikos(OKS) Token Sale
Dear Hoo users,
Hoo Labs is launching Oikos(OKS) token sale on June 12 to June 14. In order to thank our users for their support, Hoo decided to have benefits for our users. Participants who successfully joined in the first round up to 1200 USDT or the second round up to 800 USDT, are eligible to participate in the Thanksgiving benefit third rounds of enjoying lower prices on Hoo.

Rules:
First Round: June 12
Amount: 270,000 USDT (10 million OKS)
Mode: First come, first served ( Support 1000 USDT to qualify for the third round)
Reference price: 1 OKS = 0.027 USDT
Time: 10:00 on June 12, 2020 to 24:00 on June 12, 2020 (UTC+8)
Accepted coin: USDT (wallet account)
Minimum invest: 100 USDT
Maximum invest: 10,000 USDT
Requirements: complete KYC, VIP 1 or above
Second Round: June 13
Amount:150,000 USDT (5 million OKS)
Mode: First come, first served ( Support 800 USDT to qualify for the third round)
Reference price: 1 OKS = 0.03 USDT
Time: 10:00 on June 13, 2020 to 24:00 on June 13, 2020 (UTC+8)
Accepted coin: USDT (wallet account)
Minimum invest: 100 USDT
Maximum invest: 10,000 USDT
Requirements: complete KYC, VIP 1 or above
Third Round: June 14
Amount: 125,000 USDT (5 million OKS)
Mode: Super Invest
Reference price: 1 OKS = 0.025 USDT
Time: 10:00 on June 14, 2020 to 24:00 on June 14, 2020 (UTC+8)
Accepted coin: USDT (wallet account)
Minimum invest: 100 USDT
Maximum invest: 5,000 USDT
Requirements: complete KYC and VIP 1 or above, and successful participation in the first round up to 1200 USDT or the second round up to 800 USDT.
Distribution & Trading: OKS tokens will be distributed by June 17, and trading will be enabled after a month once the token sale completed. Please stay tuned to Hoo official announcement for any updates.
Introduction to Oikos:
Decentralised Synthetic Assets, Oikos is a Tron based synthetic asset platform that provides on-chain exposure to fiat currencies, commodities, stocks, and indices. Synthetic assets (Synths) are backed by Oikos Network Tokens (OKS) locked into a smart contract as collateral. Synths track the prices of various assets, allowing crypto-native and unbanked users to trade P2C (peer-to-contract) on Oikos Exchange without liquidity limitations.
Trustless Token Exchange, Oikos Swap is a Tron port of Uniswap: a trustless decentralized exchange that allows users to trade any Tron-based token without any deposits or withdrawals to a centralized order book. Better yet, Oikos Swap liquidity pools have little to no slippage for the vast majority of transactions. Anyone can contribute by adding or removing liquidity to gain commissions in the form of exchange fees as well as rewards paid in OKS token.
The Team
Manuel Corona
Co-Founder & Marketing Expert
Manuel had an early fascination with technology that led him to work with many talented people and co-found several technology projects. He is a skilled marketer, IT expert and his interests span from programming to distributed system design and of course, cryptocurrencies. His early vision for Oikos was determinant and he led the project from the idea phase to deployment.
Albert Rodriguez
Co-Founder & Mad Scientist
Albert is an early Bitcoin, Ethereum and Tron adopter. His fascination for DeFi lead him to come up with the idea for Oikos and everything started from there. He is also a very talented developer with experience in several programming languages. His daily routine consists in drinking a lot of coffee, writing code and thinking of new possible directions for Oikos.
Kevin Holder
Software Engineer
Kevin is a talented software engineer that has been through the whole technology stack during the course of his career, from cryptography to front end web development. Before Oikos, he spent his time developing smart contracts, studying decentralized applications and contributing to open source. His programming languages of choice are, in no particular order, Solidity, JavaScript and Rust.
Technical Information
Arbitrage: OKS STAKER creates the debt by exploiting Synths, so if the Synths exchange rate system falls, they can now profit by buying back sUSD below par and burning sUSD to reduce debt. Because the Oikos system always puts a dollar value on $1.00.
sTRX Liquidity Pool: Liquidity providers are providing depth to the sTRX/TRX Oikos Swap liquidity pool. The deeper this pool, the less slippage traders pay when entering or exiting the system. Liquidity providers do not need to stake or hold OKS, only TRX and sTRX. To receive rewards they must stake their Oikos Swap LP tokens into a purpose-built smart contract.
OKS Auctions: Oikos is currently experimenting with a new mechanism in conjunction with dFusion (from Gnosis) where discounted OKS will be sold in TRX auctions and then used to purchase Synths under pegged.
Token Information
Name: Oikos Network Token (OKS)
Total supply: 100,000,000 OKS
Public Sale:0.025USD (20–31 May 2020)

https://preview.redd.it/wv5o6u8rq9451.png?width=601&format=png&auto=webp&s=bbc3cd6a39fcd09ed6a1f5b63b37c8d73be6bc3a

OKS Staking Rewards
Exchange fees are generated whenever a user exchanges one synthetic asset (Synth) for another through Oikos.Exchange. Fees are typically between 10–100 bps (0.1%-1%), though usually 30 bps, and when generated are sent to the fee pool, where it is available to be claimed proportionally by OKS stakers each week.The OKS reward is generated through the inflationary monetary policy implemented in March 2018. From March 2019 to August 2023, the total supply of OKS will increase from 100,000,000 to 260,263,816 with a weekly decay rate of 1.25% (from December 2019). Mortgagors can trade fees to receive incentives. The incentive that OKS receives through inflationary supply will gradually diminish until September 2023, when OKS will become a 2.5% Year-end inflation rate.
Mining, Burning, Mortgage Ratio
The above mechanism ensures that OKS mortgagees have an incentive to keep their collateral ratios (C-Ratio) at optimal ratios (currently at 800%). This ensures that Synths has sufficient collateral support to soak up large price shocks. If the value of OKS or Synths fluctuates, each staker’s C ratio will fluctuate. If the ratio is below 800% (despite the small allowance for minor fluctuations) then they will not be able to charges before the ratio recover. They can adjust their percentage if Synths are above 800% and burn Synths if their percentage are below 800%.
Roadmap
Q2 2020
Alpha launch, token distribution event, official Tron main-net launch.
Q3 2020
Official audit, listing on exchanges, launch of additional Synths.
Q4 2020
Launch of mobile-ready user interface, port TheGraph to Tron network.
Q1 2021
Integrate ChainLink technology, research on decentralized governance models, alternative liquidation mechanism.
Q2 2021
Support for more complex trading instruments. Transition to a fully decentralized governance model, use of TRX as collateral for Synth issuance.
Social Media:
Website: https://oikos.cash/
Whitepaper: https://docs.oikos.cash/litepaper-zh.pdf
Telegram: https://t.me/oikoscash
Twitter: https://twitter.com/oikos_cash
Github: https://github.com/orgs/oikos-cash/
Risk Alert: Any digital assets investment is risky. Please evaluate your risk tolerance before getting involved. Your support on Hoo is highly appreciated.
Hoo Team
June 10, 2020
submitted by Hooexchange to u/Hooexchange [link] [comments]

TOP 3 Anonymous Cryptocurrencies

TOP 3 Anonymous Cryptocurrencies
Last year Bitfury’s multidisciplinary Blockchain specialists announced the possibility of revealing the identities of more than 16% of all owners of Bitcoin addresses. Several years ago, a team of CryptoLux developers, having conducted a study of transaction privacy on the Bitcoin network, concluded that 60% of all addresses can be deanonymized. Summarizing all this, it’s worth highlighting three existing methods that can successfully deanonymize private transactions.

Clustering

The easiest way to cluster (link Bitcoin addresses) is by analyzing transactional networks. In other words, this is a method that allows finding several inputs combined in one transaction. The second clustering method is “distribution analysis”. It allows calculation the percentage of cryptocurrency at the certain address that comes from another specific address and it becomes clear whether these addresses are connected by one direct transaction or a chain of transactions or not.

Graph analysis

It consists of quantitative and temporal analyzes. Quantitative analysis studies not certain transactions, but amounts. Time analysis tracks specific periods.

Memory Pool Method

When a transaction is made through the user’s wallet, the input nodes send information about the transaction to the Blockchain network. The purpose of this method is to identify the set of input nodes through the wallet and the user. In this case, the IP address of the client can be associated with its transactions. There are certain private cryptocurrency-leaders which are popular and trusted among users. Using one feature-privacy, they have different ways of functioning.

Basic principles of work: anonymous cryptocurrencies (Monero, Dash, Zcash)

Monero

The platform focuses on privacy and decentralization. The coin uses three levels of protection:
• Ring signatures, that hide the origin of the sender by mixing the user’s address with the addresses of other group members. • Ring confidential transactions, which hide the amount of the transaction. • Stealth addresses, that allow a user to hide the recipient’s address.
Such way guarantees the privacy of the sender and the recipient. Monero can be bought on Poloniex, Bitfinex, Livecoin, and Kraken crypto exchanges. It is possible to store Monero via an online wallet. More secure is its computer wallet. Due to its privacy, the popularity of the coin is expected to grow, so it makes sense to add a coin to an investment portfolio.
Advantages
• Increased privacy. Cryptocurrency is suitable for those who are afraid of deanonymizing network transactions. • Unlimited and difficult mining. • It takes less time to find blocks. • Resistance to the centralization of mining capacities.
Disadvantages
• Resources. All currency protection technologies require impressive machine performance for normal operation. The Monero block size is constantly growing, and this requires additional resources of network participants. • The popularity in the dark web leads to problems in working with regulatory authorities, exchanges often delist it. Speaking of reputation, Monero’s reputation is far from the best. The coin is often used on the dark web as payment for various illegal services. It happens to almost all crypto coins that provide privacy. • Large transaction sizes. Since Monero Blockchain is five times larger than the Bitcoin Blockchain in terms of one transaction. • Problems with scalability.

Dash

The Dash platform is a classic decentralized Blockchain-based payment system and the most technologically advanced cryptocurrency. It implements multi-off-chain money transfers without loss of reliability and overall security of the Blockchain. Its confidentiality is rather an additional option that can be used optionally. In the case of anonymity, it is possible to send a hidden transaction, but at a more expensive cost, which also requires additional time. Dash developed a hashing algorithm with eleven cryptographic functions-X 11 for the first time. The coin developers have released apps for other platforms. Today it is possible to use Dash for IOS, Zeal for Linux, LovelyDocs for Android and Velocity for Windows.
As well known, the CoinJoin is an anonymization method for crypto transactions, which is used by Dash as an improved version called the PrivateSend. Its mixing sessions are limited to 1,000 DASH for each session and will require multiple mixing sessions to anonymize a large amount of money.
Advantages
• High transaction speed. It is achieved via InstantX technology, which enables the confirmation of operations in less than 4 seconds. • Law transaction fees. • Energy consumption. Unlike Monero, it does not require a lot of power or high commission costs.
Disadvantages
• “Transparency” of the network. Without triggering the “mixing” mechanism, the directions of transactions and their balances are publicly visible to everyone. • Lack of proper cryptographic technologies that provide privacy, but can provide a sufficiently high level of protection. • Transaction visibility to the founders and the team.

Zcash

An open-source decentralized cryptocurrency that provides users with maximum privacy. Zcash is the first private cryptocurrency, using cryptographic protocol zk-SNARKS, a zero-knowledge security layer. It allows users to make hidden and open transactions.
Mathematically guaranteed privacy is something cryptocurrency can not be proud of. This fact makes the currency specific. All Zcash coins are identical, it means that interchangeable coins do not contain information about past use created. In this regard, the connection of coins with their history on the Blockchain is broken, which makes them universal and identical to each other. Zcash blocks are generated 4 times faster than Bitcoin. The currency trades on Huobi, Bitfinex and Binance exchanges, and after purchase, it can be stored on the exchange’s internal wallet, as well as transferred to Jaxx, Cryptonator and Coinomi multi-currency wallets. Coins can also be stored on hardware wallets like Ledger and Trezor.
Advantages
• Privacy. Since no information except the time stamp, is recorded in the Blockchain, transactions cannot be tracked, and the identity of the sender and recipient is almost impossible to establish. • Interchangeability. Due to interchangeability, all coins have a “clean” history. This means that it is practically impossible to determine which transactions coin was used. • Security. Lack of information about user keys, which protects user wallets and the network.Mining energy efficiency. Zcash mining hardware consumes less electricity than Bitcoin mining ASICs. • The difficulty of mining. Zcash is beneficial for those who want to get coins for block creation. Bitcoin mining becomes more and more complicated, so miners cannot earn enough money via their computers with high capacity.
Disadvantages
• 6 users can decide to leave the transferred data completely open. • It takes a lot of calculations to complete a transaction. • Insecurity. There are fears that the system could be hacked, or users may accidentally open the data. • Legally ZCash is supported only by Linux, however, it provides users with wallets for other platforms: Jaxx, Ledger, Trezor, Trust, Zecwallet, Ibitcome, Exodus, Guarda, Coinomi, Cobowallet, and Bitgo.
Private cryptocurrencies are necessary for anyone who values the privacy and confidentiality of financial transactions. Privacy can generate more value, than danger, as Eric Hughes says: “Privacy is necessary for an open society in the electronic age. Privacy is not secrecy. A private matter is something one doesn’t want the whole world to know, but a secret matter is something one doesn’t want anybody to know. Privacy is the power to selectively reveal oneself to the world”.
submitted by Stealthex_io to StealthEX [link] [comments]

Searching for the Unicorn Cryptocurrency

Searching for the Unicorn Cryptocurrency
For someone first starting out as a cryptocurrency investor, finding a trustworthy manual for screening a cryptocurrency’s merits is nonexistent as we are still in the early, Wild West days of the cryptocurrency market. One would need to become deeply familiar with the inner workings of blockchain to be able to perform the bare minimum due diligence.
One might believe, over time, that finding the perfect cryptocurrency may be nothing short of futile. If a cryptocurrency purports infinite scalability, then it is probably either lightweight with limited features or it is highly centralized among a limited number of nodes that perform consensus services especially Proof of Stake or Delegated Proof of Stake. Similarly, a cryptocurrency that purports comprehensive privacy may have technical obstacles to overcome if it aims to expand its applications such as in smart contracts. The bottom line is that it is extremely difficult for a cryptocurrency to have all important features jam-packed into itself.
The cryptocurrency space is stuck in the era of the “dial-up internet” in a manner of speaking. Currently blockchain can’t scale – not without certain tradeoffs – and it hasn’t fully resolved certain intractable issues such as user-unfriendly long addresses and how the blockchain size is forever increasing to name two.
In other words, we haven’t found the ultimate cryptocurrency. That is, we haven’t found the mystical unicorn cryptocurrency that ushers the era of decentralization while eschewing all the limitations of traditional blockchain systems.
“But wait – what about Ethereum once it implements sharding?”
“Wouldn’t IOTA be able to scale infinitely with smart contracts through its Qubic offering?”
“Isn’t Dash capable of having privacy, smart contracts, and instantaneous transactions?”
Those thoughts and comments may come from cryptocurrency investors who have done their research. It is natural for the informed investors to invest in projects that are believed to bring cutting edge technological transformation to blockchain. Sooner or later, the sinking realization will hit that any variation of the current blockchain technology will always likely have certain limitations.
Let us pretend that there indeed exists a unicorn cryptocurrency somewhere that may or may not be here yet. What would it look like, exactly? Let us set the 5 criteria of the unicorn cryptocurrency:
Unicorn Criteria
(1) Perfectly solves the blockchain trilemma:
o Infinite scalability
o Full security
o Full decentralization
(2) Zero or minimal transaction fee
(3) Full privacy
(4) Full smart contract capabilities
(5) Fair distribution and fair governance
For each of the above 5 criteria, there would not be any middle ground. For example, a cryptocurrency with just an in-protocol mixer would not be considered as having full privacy. As another example, an Initial Coin Offering (ICO) may possibly violate criterion (5) since with an ICO the distribution and governance are often heavily favored towards an oligarchy – this in turn would defy the spirit of decentralization that Bitcoin was found on.
There is no cryptocurrency currently that fits the above profile of the unicorn cryptocurrency. Let us examine an arbitrary list of highly hyped cryptocurrencies that meet the above list at least partially. The following list is by no means comprehensive but may be a sufficient sampling of various blockchain implementations:
Bitcoin (BTC)
Bitcoin is the very first and the best known cryptocurrency that started it all. While Bitcoin is generally considered extremely secure, it suffers from mining centralization to a degree. Bitcoin is not anonymous, lacks smart contracts, and most worrisomely, can only do about 7 transactions per seconds (TPS). Bitcoin is not the unicorn notwithstanding all the Bitcoin maximalists.
Ethereum (ETH)
Ethereum is widely considered the gold standard of smart contracts aside from its scalability problem. Sharding as part of Casper’s release is generally considered to be the solution to Ethereum’s scalability problem.
The goal of sharding is to split up validating responsibilities among various groups or shards. Ethereum’s sharding comes down to duplicating the existing blockchain architecture and sharing a token. This does not solve the core issue and simply kicks the can further down the road. After all, full nodes still need to exist one way or another.
Ethereum’s blockchain size problem is also an issue as will be explained more later in this article.
As a result, Ethereum is not the unicorn due to its incomplete approach to scalability and, to a degree, security.
Dash
Dash’s masternodes are widely considered to be centralized due to their high funding requirements, and there are accounts of a pre-mine in the beginning. Dash is not the unicorn due to its questionable decentralization.
Nano
Nano boasts rightfully for its instant, free transactions. But it lacks smart contracts and privacy, and it may be exposed to well orchestrated DDOS attacks. Therefore, it goes without saying that Nano is not the unicorn.
EOS
While EOS claims to execute millions of transactions per seconds, a quick glance reveals centralized parameters with 21 nodes and a questionable governance system. Therefore, EOS fails to achieve the unicorn status.
Monero (XMR)
One of the best known and respected privacy coins, Monero lacks smart contracts and may fall short of infinite scalability due to CryptoNote’s design. The unicorn rank is out of Monero’s reach.
IOTA
IOTA’s scalability is based on the number of transactions the network processes, and so its supposedly infinite scalability would fluctuate and is subject to the whims of the underlying transactions. While IOTA’s scalability approach is innovative and may work in the long term, it should be reminded that the unicorn cryptocurrency has no middle ground. The unicorn cryptocurrency would be expected to scale infinitely on a consistent basis from the beginning.
In addition, IOTA’s Masked Authenticated Messaging (MAM) feature does not bring privacy to the masses in a highly convenient manner. Consequently, the unicorn is not found with IOTA.

PascalCoin as a Candidate for the Unicorn Cryptocurrency
Please allow me to present a candidate for the cryptocurrency unicorn: PascalCoin.
According to the website, PascalCoin claims the following:
“PascalCoin is an instant, zero-fee, infinitely scalable, and decentralized cryptocurrency with advanced privacy and smart contract capabilities. Enabled by the SafeBox technology to become the world’s first blockchain independent of historical operations, PascalCoin possesses unlimited potential.”
The above summary is a mouthful to be sure, but let’s take a deep dive on how PascalCoin innovates with the SafeBox and more. Before we do this, I encourage you to first become acquainted with PascalCoin by watching the following video introduction:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=4&v=F25UU-0W9Dk
The rest of this section will be split into 10 parts in order to illustrate most of the notable features of PascalCoin. Naturally, let’s start off with the SafeBox.
Part #1: The SafeBox
Unlike traditional UTXO-based cryptocurrencies in which the blockchain records the specifics of each transaction (address, sender address, amount of funds transferred, etc.), the blockchain in PascalCoin is only used to mutate the SafeBox. The SafeBox is a separate but equivalent cryptographic data structure that snapshots account balances. PascalCoin’s blockchain is comparable to a machine that feeds the most important data – namely, the state of an account – into the SafeBox. Any node can still independently compute and verify the cumulative Proof-of-Work required to construct the SafeBox.
The PascalCoin whitepaper elegantly highlights the unique historical independence that the SafeBox possesses:
“While there are approaches that cryptocurrencies could use such as pruning, warp-sync, "finality checkpoints", UTXO-snapshotting, etc, there is a fundamental difference with PascalCoin. Their new nodes can only prove they are on most-work-chain using the infinite history whereas in PascalCoin, new nodes can prove they are on the most-work chain without the infinite history.”
Some cryptocurrency old-timers might instinctively balk at the idea of full nodes eschewing the entire history for security, but such a reaction would showcase a lack of understanding on what the SafeBox really does.
A concrete example would go a long way to best illustrate what the SafeBox does. Let’s say I input the following operations in my calculator:
5 * 5 – 10 / 2 + 5
It does not take a genius to calculate the answer, 25. Now, the expression “5 \ 5 – 10 / 2 + 5”* would be forever imbued on a traditional blockchain’s history. But the SafeBox begs to differ. It says that the expression “5 \ 5 – 10 / 2 + 5”* should instead be simply “25” so as preserve simplicity, time, and space. In other words, the SafeBox simply preserves the account balance.
But some might still be unsatisfied and claim that if one cannot trace the series of operations (transactions) that lead to the final number (balance) of 25, the blockchain is inherently insecure.
Here are four important security aspects of the SafeBox that some people fail to realize:
(1) SafeBox Follows the Longest Chain of Proof-of-Work
The SafeBox mutates itself per 100 blocks. Each new SafeBox mutation must reference both to the previous SafeBox mutation and the preceding 100 blocks in order to be valid, and the resultant hash of the new mutated SafeBox must then be referenced by each of the new subsequent blocks, and the process repeats itself forever.
The fact that each new SafeBox mutation must reference to the previous SafeBox mutation is comparable to relying on the entire history. This is because the previous SafeBox mutation encapsulates the result of cumulative entire history except for the 100 blocks which is why each new SafeBox mutation requires both the previous SafeBox mutation and the preceding 100 blocks.
So in a sense, there is a single interconnected chain of inflows and outflows, supported by Byzantine Proof-of-Work consensus, instead of the entire history of transactions.
More concretely, the SafeBox follows the path of the longest chain of Proof-of-Work simply by design, and is thus cryptographically equivalent to the entire history even without tracing specific operations in the past. If the chain is rolled back with a 51% attack, only the attacker’s own account(s) in the SafeBox can be manipulated as is explained in the next part.
(2) A 51% Attack on PascalCoin Functions the Same as Others
A 51% attack on PascalCoin would work in a similar way as with other Proof-of-Work cryptocurrencies. An attacker cannot modify a transaction in the past without affecting the current SafeBox hash which is accepted by all honest nodes.
Someone might claim that if you roll back all the current blocks plus the 100 blocks prior to the SafeBox’s mutation, one could create a forged SafeBox with different balances for all accounts. This would be incorrect as one would be able to manipulate only his or her own account(s) in the SafeBox with a 51% attack – just as is the case with other UTXO cryptocurrencies. The SafeBox stores the balances of all accounts which are in turn irreversibly linked only to their respective owners’ private keys.
(3) One Could Preserve the Entire History of the PascalCoin Blockchain
No blockchain data in PascalCoin is ever deleted even in the presence of the SafeBox. Since the SafeBox is cryptographically equivalent to a full node with the entire history as explained above, PascalCoin full nodes are not expected to contain infinite history. But for whatever reason(s) one may have, one could still keep all the PascalCoin blockchain history as well along with the SafeBox as an option even though it would be redundant.
Without storing the entire history of the PascalCoin blockchain, you can still trace the specific operations of the 100 blocks prior to when the SafeBox absorbs and reflects the net result (a single balance for each account) from those 100 blocks. But if you’re interested in tracing operations over a longer period in the past – as redundant as that may be – you’d have the option to do so by storing the entire history of the PascalCoin blockchain.
(4) The SafeBox is Equivalent to the Entire Blockchain History
Some skeptics may ask this question: “What if the SafeBox is forever lost? How would you be able to verify your accounts?” Asking this question is tantamount to asking to what would happen to Bitcoin if all of its entire history was erased. The result would be chaos, of course, but the SafeBox is still in line with the general security model of a traditional blockchain with respect to black swans.
Now that we know the security of the SafeBox is not compromised, what are the implications of this new blockchain paradigm? A colorful illustration as follows still wouldn’t do justice to the subtle revolution that the SafeBox ushers. The automobiles we see on the street are the cookie-and-butter representation of traditional blockchain systems. The SafeBox, on the other hand, supercharges those traditional cars to become the Transformers from Michael Bay’s films.
The SafeBox is an entirely different blockchain architecture that is impressive in its simplicity and ingenuity. The SafeBox’s design is only the opening act for PascalCoin’s vast nuclear arsenal. If the above was all that PascalCoin offers, it still wouldn’t come close to achieving the unicorn status but luckily, we have just scratched the surface. Please keep on reading on if you want to learn how PascalCoin is going to shatter the cryptocurrency industry into pieces. Buckle down as this is going to be a long read as we explore further about the SafeBox’s implications.
Part #2: 0-Confirmation Transactions
To begin, 0-confirmation transactions are secure in PascalCoin thanks to the SafeBox.
The following paraphrases an explanation of PascalCoin’s 0-confirmations from the whitepaper:
“Since PascalCoin is not a UTXO-based currency but rather a State-based currency thanks to the SafeBox, the security guarantee of 0-confirmation transactions are much stronger than in UTXO-based currencies. For example, in Bitcoin if a merchant accepts a 0-confirmation transaction for a coffee, the buyer can simply roll that transaction back after receiving the coffee but before the transaction is confirmed in a block. The way the buyer does this is by re-spending those UTXOs to himself in a new transaction (with a higher fee) thus invalidating them for the merchant. In PascalCoin, this is virtually impossible since the buyer's transaction to the merchant is simply a delta-operation to debit/credit a quantity from/to accounts respectively. The buyer is unable to erase or pre-empt this two-sided, debit/credit-based transaction from the network’s pending pool until it either enters a block for confirmation or is discarded with respect to both sender and receiver ends. If the buyer tries to double-spend the coffee funds after receiving the coffee but before they clear, the double-spend transaction will not propagate the network since nodes cannot propagate a double-spending transaction thanks to the debit/credit nature of the transaction. A UTXO-based transaction is initially one-sided before confirmation and therefore is more exposed to one-sided malicious schemes of double spending.”
Phew, that explanation was technical but it had to be done. In summary, PascalCoin possesses the only secure 0-confirmation transactions in the cryptocurrency industry, and it goes without saying that this means PascalCoin is extremely fast. In fact, PascalCoin is capable of 72,000 TPS even prior to any additional extensive optimizations down the road. In other words, PascalCoin is as instant as it gets and gives Nano a run for its money.
Part #3: Zero Fee
Let’s circle back to our discussion of PascalCoin’s 0-confirmation capability. Here’s a little fun magical twist to PascalCoin’s 0-confirmation magic: 0-confirmation transactions are zero-fee. As in you don’t pay a single cent in fee for each 0-confirmation! There is just a tiny downside: if you create a second transaction in a 5-minute block window then you’d need to pay a minimal fee. Imagine using Nano but with a significantly stronger anti-DDOS protection for spam! But there shouldn’t be any complaint as this fee would amount to 0.0001 Pascal or $0.00002 based on the current price of a Pascal at the time of this writing.
So, how come the fee for blazingly fast transactions is nonexistent? This is where the magic of the SafeBox arises in three ways:
(1) PascalCoin possesses the secure 0-confirmation feature as discussed above that enables this speed.
(2) There is no fee bidding competition of transaction priority typical in UTXO cryptocurrencies since, once again, PascalCoin operates on secure 0-confirmations.
(3) There is no fee incentive needed to run full nodes on behalf of the network’s security beyond the consensus rewards.
Part #4: Blockchain Size
Let’s expand more on the third point above, using Ethereum as an example. Since Ethereum’s launch in 2015, its full blockchain size is currently around 2 TB, give or take, but let’s just say its blockchain size is 100 GB for now to avoid offending the Ethereum elitists who insist there are different types of full nodes that are lighter. Whoever runs Ethereum’s full nodes would expect storage fees on top of the typical consensus fees as it takes significant resources to shoulder Ethereum’s full blockchain size and in turn secure the network. What if I told you that PascalCoin’s full blockchain size will never exceed few GBs after thousands of years? That is just what the SafeBox enables PascalCoin to do so. It is estimated that by 2072, PascalCoin’s full nodes will only be 6 GB which is low enough not to warrant any fee incentives for hosting full nodes. Remember, the SafeBox is an ultra-light cryptographic data structure that is cryptographically equivalent to a blockchain with the entire transaction history. In other words, the SafeBox is a compact spreadsheet of all account balances that functions as PascalCoin’s full node!
Not only does the SafeBox’s infinitesimal memory size helps to reduce transaction fees by phasing out any storage fees, but it also paves the way for true decentralization. It would be trivial for every PascalCoin user to opt a full node in the form of a wallet. This is extreme decentralization at its finest since the majority of users of other cryptocurrencies ditch full nodes due to their burdensome sizes. It is naïve to believe that storage costs would reduce enough to the point where hosting full nodes are trivial. Take a look at the following chart outlining the trend of storage cost.

* https://www.backblaze.com/blog/hard-drive-cost-per-gigabyte/
As we can see, storage costs continue to decrease but the descent is slowing down as is the norm with technological improvements. In the meantime, blockchain sizes of other cryptocurrencies are increasing linearly or, in the case of smart contract engines like Ethereum, parabolically. Imagine a cryptocurrency smart contract engine like Ethereum garnering worldwide adoption; how do you think Ethereum’s size would look like in the far future based on the following chart?


https://i.redd.it/k57nimdjmo621.png

Ethereum’s future blockchain size is not looking pretty in terms of sustainable security. Sharding is not a fix for this issue since there still needs to be full nodes but that is a different topic for another time.
It is astonishing that the cryptocurrency community as a whole has passively accepted this forever-expanding-blockchain-size problem as an inescapable fate.
PascalCoin is the only cryptocurrency that has fully escaped the death vortex of forever expanding blockchain size. Its blockchain size wouldn’t exceed 10 GB even after many hundreds of years of worldwide adoption. Ethereum’s blockchain size after hundreds of years of worldwide adoption would make fine comedy.
Part #5: Simple, Short, and Ordinal Addresses
Remember how the SafeBox works by snapshotting all account balances? As it turns out, the account address system is almost as cool as the SafeBox itself.
Imagine yourself in this situation: on a very hot and sunny day, you’re wandering down the street across from your house and ran into a lemonade stand – the old-fashioned kind without any QR code or credit card terminal. The kid across you is selling a lemonade cup for 1 Pascal with a poster outlining the payment address as 5471-55. You flip out your phone and click “Send” with 1 Pascal to the address 5471-55; viola, exactly one second later you’re drinking your lemonade without paying a cent for the transaction fee!
The last thing one wants to do is to figure out how to copy/paste to, say, the following address 1BoatSLRHtKNngkdXEeobR76b53LETtpyT on the spot wouldn’t it? Gone are the obnoxiously long addresses that plague all cryptocurrencies. The days of those unreadable addresses will be long gone – it has to be if blockchain is to innovate itself for the general public. EOS has a similar feature for readable addresses but in a very limited manner in comparison, and nicknames attached to addresses in GUIs don’t count since blockchain-wide compatibility wouldn’t hold.
Not only does PascalCoin has the neat feature of having addresses (called PASAs) that amount to up to 6 or 7 digits, but PascalCoin can also incorporate in-protocol address naming as opposed to GUI address nicknames. Suppose I want to order something from Amazon using Pascal; I simply search the word “Amazon” then the corresponding account number shows up. Pretty neat, right?
The astute reader may gather that PascalCoin’s address system makes it necessary to commoditize addresses, and he/she would be correct. Some view this as a weakness; part #10 later in this segment addresses this incorrect perception.
Part #6: Privacy
As if the above wasn’t enough, here’s another secret that PascalCoin has: it is a full-blown privacy coin. It uses two separate foundations to achieve comprehensive anonymity: in-protocol mixer for transfer amounts and zn-SNARKs for private balances. The former has been implemented and the latter is on the roadmap. Both the 0-confirmation transaction and the negligible transaction fee would make PascalCoin the most scalable privacy coin of any other cryptocurrencies pending the zk-SNARKs implementation.
Part #7: Smart Contracts
Next, PascalCoin will take smart contracts to the next level with a layer-2 overlay consensus system that pioneers sidechains and other smart contract implementations.
In formal terms, this layer-2 architecture will facilitate the transfer of data between PASAs which in turn allows clean enveloping of layer-2 protocols inside layer-1 much in the same way that HTTP lives inside TCP.
To summarize:
· The layer-2 consensus method is separate from the layer-1 Proof-of-Work. This layer-2 consensus method is independent and flexible. A sidechain – based on a single encompassing PASA – could apply Proof-of-Stake (POS), Delegated Proof-of-Stake (DPOS), or Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) as the consensus system of its choice.
· Such a layer-2 smart contract platform can be written in any languages.
· Layer-2 sidechains will also provide very strong anonymity since funds are all pooled and keys are not used to unlock them.
· This layer-2 architecture is ingenious in which the computation is separate from layer-2 consensus, in effect removing any bottleneck.
· Horizontal scaling exists in this paradigm as there is no interdependence between smart contracts and states are not managed by slow sidechains.
· Speed and scalability are fully independent of PascalCoin.
One would be able to run the entire global financial system on PascalCoin’s infinitely scalable smart contract platform and it would still scale infinitely. In fact, this layer-2 architecture would be exponentially faster than Ethereum even after its sharding is implemented.
All this is the main focus of PascalCoin’s upcoming version 5 in 2019. A whitepaper add-on for this major upgrade will be released in early 2019.
Part #8: RandomHash Algorithm
Surely there must be some tradeoffs to PascalCoin’s impressive capabilities, you might be asking yourself. One might bring up the fact that PascalCoin’s layer-1 is based on Proof-of-Work and is thus susceptible to mining centralization. This would be a fallacy as PascalCoin has pioneered the very first true ASIC, GPU, and dual-mining resistant algorithm known as RandomHash that obliterates anything that is not CPU based and gives all the power back to solo miners.
Here is the official description of RandomHash:
“RandomHash is a high-level cryptographic hash algorithm that combines other well-known hash primitives in a highly serial manner. The distinguishing feature is that calculations for a nonce are dependent on partial calculations of other nonces, selected at random. This allows a serial hasher (CPU) to re-use these partial calculations in subsequent mining saving 50% or more of the work-load. Parallel hashers (GPU) cannot benefit from this optimization since the optimal nonce-set cannot be pre-calculated as it is determined on-the-fly. As a result, parallel hashers (GPU) are required to perform the full workload for every nonce. Also, the algorithm results in 10x memory bloat for a parallel implementation. In addition to its serial nature, it is branch-heavy and recursive making in optimal for CPU-only mining.”
One might be understandably skeptical of any Proof-of-Work algorithm that solves ASIC and GPU centralization once for all because there have been countless proposals being thrown around for various algorithms since the dawn of Bitcoin. Is RandomHash truly the ASIC & GPU killer that it claims to be?
Herman Schoenfeld, the inventor behind RandomHash, described his algorithm in the following:
“RandomHash offers endless ASIC-design breaking surface due to its use of recursion, hash algo selection, memory hardness and random number generation.
For example, changing how round hash selection is made and/or random number generator algo and/or checksum algo and/or their sequencing will totally break an ASIC design. Conceptually if you can significantly change the structure of the output assembly whilst keeping the high-level algorithm as invariant as possible, the ASIC design will necessarily require proportional restructuring. This results from the fact that ASIC designs mirror the ASM of the algorithm rather than the algorithm itself.”
Polyminer1 (pseudonym), one of the members of the PascalCoin core team who developed RHMiner (official software for mining RandomHash), claimed as follows:
“The design of RandomHash is, to my experience, a genuine innovation. I’ve been 30 years in the field. I’ve rarely been surprised by anything. RandomHash was one of my rare surprises. It’s elegant, simple, and achieves resistance in all fronts.”
PascalCoin may have been the first party to achieve the race of what could possibly be described as the “God algorithm” for Proof-of-Work cryptocurrencies. Look no further than one of Monero’s core developers since 2015, Howard Chu. In September 2018, Howard declared that he has found a solution, called RandomJS, to permanently keep ASICs off the network without repetitive algorithm changes. This solution actually closely mirrors RandomHash’s algorithm. Discussing about his algorithm, Howard asserted that “RandomJS is coming at the problem from a direction that nobody else is.”
Link to Howard Chu’s article on RandomJS:
https://www.coindesk.com/one-musicians-creative-solution-to-drive-asics-off-monero
Yet when Herman was asked about Howard’s approach, he responded:
“Yes, looks like it may work although using Javascript was a bit much. They should’ve just used an assembly subset and generated random ASM programs. In a way, RandomHash does this with its repeated use of random mem-transforms during expansion phase.”
In the end, PascalCoin may have successfully implemented the most revolutionary Proof-of-Work algorithm, one that eclipses Howard’s burgeoning vision, to date that almost nobody knows about. To learn more about RandomHash, refer to the following resources:
RandomHash whitepaper:
https://www.pascalcoin.org/storage/whitepapers/RandomHash_Whitepaper.pdf
Technical proposal for RandomHash:
https://github.com/PascalCoin/PascalCoin/blob/mastePIP/PIP-0009.md
Someone might claim that PascalCoin still suffers from mining centralization after RandomHash, and this is somewhat misleading as will be explained in part #10.
Part #9: Fair Distribution and Governance
Not only does PascalCoin rest on superior technology, but it also has its roots in the correct philosophy of decentralized distribution and governance. There was no ICO or pre-mine, and the developer fund exists as a percentage of mining rewards as voted by the community. This developer fund is 100% governed by a decentralized autonomous organization – currently facilitated by the PascalCoin Foundation – that will eventually be transformed into an autonomous smart contract platform. Not only is the developer fund voted upon by the community, but PascalCoin’s development roadmap is also voted upon the community via the Protocol Improvement Proposals (PIPs).
This decentralized governance also serves an important benefit as a powerful deterrent to unseemly fork wars that befall many cryptocurrencies.
Part #10: Common Misconceptions of PascalCoin
“The branding is terrible”
PascalCoin is currently working very hard on its image and is preparing for several branding and marketing initiatives in the short term. For example, two of the core developers of the PascalCoin recently interviewed with the Fox Business Network. A YouTube replay of this interview will be heavily promoted.
Some people object to the name PascalCoin. First, it’s worth noting that PascalCoin is the name of the project while Pascal is the name of the underlying currency. Secondly, Google and YouTube received excessive criticisms back then in the beginning with their name choices. Look at where those companies are nowadays – surely a somewhat similar situation faces PascalCoin until the name’s familiarity percolates into the public.
“The wallet GUI is terrible”
As the team is run by a small yet extremely dedicated developers, multiple priorities can be challenging to juggle. The lack of funding through an ICO or a pre-mine also makes it challenging to accelerate development. The top priority of the core developers is to continue developing full-time on the groundbreaking technology that PascalCoin offers. In the meantime, an updated and user-friendly wallet GUI has been worked upon for some time and will be released in due time. Rome wasn’t built in one day.
“One would need to purchase a PASA in the first place”
This is a complicated topic since PASAs need to be commoditized by the SafeBox’s design, meaning that PASAs cannot be obtained at no charge to prevent systematic abuse. This raises two seemingly valid concerns:
· As a chicken and egg problem, how would one purchase a PASA using Pascal in the first place if one cannot obtain Pascal without a PASA?
· How would the price of PASAs stay low and affordable in the face of significant demand?
With regards to the chicken and egg problem, there are many ways – some finished and some unfinished – to obtain your first PASA as explained on the “Get Started” page on the PascalCoin website:
https://www.pascalcoin.org/get_started
More importantly, however, is the fact that there are few methods that can get your first PASA for free. The team will also release another method soon in which you could obtain your first PASA for free via a single SMS message. This would probably become by far the simplest and the easiest way to obtain your first PASA for free. There will be more new ways to easily obtain your first PASA for free down the road.
What about ensuring the PASA market at large remains inexpensive and affordable following your first (and probably free) PASA acquisition? This would be achieved in two ways:
· Decentralized governance of the PASA economics per the explanation in the FAQ section on the bottom of the PascalCoin website (https://www.pascalcoin.org/)
· Unlimited and free pseudo-PASAs based on layer-2 in the next version release.
“PascalCoin is still centralized after the release of RandomHash”
Did the implementation of RandomHash from version 4 live up to its promise?
The official goals of RandomHash were as follow:
(1) Implement a GPU & ASIC resistant hash algorithm
(2) Eliminate dual mining
The two goals above were achieved by every possible measure.
Yet a mining pool, Nanopool, was able to regain its hash majority after a significant but a temporary dip.
The official conclusion is that, from a probabilistic viewpoint, solo miners are more profitable than pool miners. However, pool mining is enticing for solo miners who 1) have limited hardware as it ensures a steady income instead of highly profitable but probabilistic income via solo mining, and 2) who prefer convenient software and/or GUI.
What is the next step, then? While the barrier of entry for solo miners has successfully been put down, additional work needs to be done. The PascalCoin team and the community are earnestly investigating additional steps to improve mining decentralization with respect to pool mining specifically to add on top of RandomHash’s successful elimination of GPU, ASIC, and dual-mining dominance.
It is likely that the PascalCoin community will promote the following two initiatives in the near future:
(1) Establish a community-driven, nonprofit mining pool with attractive incentives.
(2) Optimize RHMiner, PascalCoin’s official solo mining software, for performance upgrades.
A single pool dominance is likely short lived once more options emerge for individual CPU miners who want to avoid solo mining for whatever reason(s).
Let us use Bitcoin as an example. Bitcoin mining is dominated by ASICs and mining pools but no single pool is – at the time of this writing – even close on obtaining the hash majority. With CPU solo mining being a feasible option in conjunction with ASIC and GPU mining eradication with RandomHash, the future hash rate distribution of PascalCoin would be far more promising than Bitcoin’s hash rate distribution.
PascalCoin is the Unicorn Cryptocurrency
If you’ve read this far, let’s cut straight to the point: PascalCoin IS the unicorn cryptocurrency.
It is worth noting that PascalCoin is still a young cryptocurrency as it was launched at the end of 2016. This means that many features are still work in progress such as zn-SNARKs, smart contracts, and pool decentralization to name few. However, it appears that all of the unicorn criteria are within PascalCoin’s reach once PascalCoin’s technical roadmap is mostly completed.
Based on this expository on PascalCoin’s technology, there is every reason to believe that PascalCoin is the unicorn cryptocurrency. PascalCoin also solves two fundamental blockchain problems beyond the unicorn criteria that were previously considered unsolvable: blockchain size and simple address system. The SafeBox pushes PascalCoin to the forefront of cryptocurrency zeitgeist since it is a superior solution compared to UTXO, Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG), Block Lattice, Tangle, and any other blockchain innovations.


THE UNICORN

Author: Tyler Swob
submitted by Kosass to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

All About Mining

All About Mining

https://preview.redd.it/sq9bzi34o8931.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=5917b541c4067fb2bbf5944f5b0c820167b4c66c
Since blockchain-based systems are decentralized, they do their decision-making by using consensus mechanisms. As per Wikipedia, “Consensus decision-making is a group decision-making process in which group members develop, and agree to support a decision in the best interest of the whole.” The mechanism by which the consensus is achieved is called consensus mechanism.

There are various types of consensus mechanisms out there, but the ones most commonly used are proof-of-work (PoW), aka “mining” and proof-of-stake (PoS). PoW’s ecosystem has a group of people called miners who use ASICs or GPUs to solve cryptographically-hard puzzles. PoS, on the other hand, has a staking model which takes care of consensus. If you want to know more about how PoW and PoS works, then check out this article.

In this article, we are going to be focussing on one of the biggest problems of mining, which makes it highly inefficient to achieve true decentralization. Later on, we are also going to see how staking mitigates this very problem

Mining and centralization
At the very heart of blockchain-based systems lies the concept of decentralization. PoW, as it turns out, is not as decentralization-friendly as we previously thought. The following is the current hashrate distribution chart of Bitcoin:

https://preview.redd.it/7bfje6s6o8931.png?width=871&format=png&auto=webp&s=5d29d3a090328527d5bdddde341b90a5769114cb
Bitcoin currently has four mining pools which own more than 50% of the network hashrate. It gets even worse when you look at Monero’s hashrate distribution:

https://preview.redd.it/l6y5emc8o8931.png?width=937&format=png&auto=webp&s=d882634608eab3ee1b09aae858bc69130bb29906
Monero has three mining pools which hold more than 60% of the network hashrate!

The main problem with this is that these dominant pools have an unfair advantage in the ecosystem:
  • Theoretically speaking, they can join forces and conduct a 51% attack on the ecosystem. If they do so, they can do whatever they want on the blockchain.
  • Since they own a significant percentage of the network hashrate, the probability of them successfully mining the blocks is significantly higher and, as a result, they will be receiving most of the mining rewards.

There is one more factor which gives large mining pools an extremely unfair advantage. To understand that, let’s look into a concept called “Economies of Scale.”

What is “Economies of Scale?”
There are two kinds of productions out there:
  • Short-run production: At least one of the input resources is fixed
  • Long-run production: None of the input resources are fixed. This is where economies of scale come in.

Let’s go a little deeper into the second point.
Assume that you are doubling the number of input resources in a long-run production. When you do that, there are three possible outcomes:
  • The output more than doubles, so you are getting increasing returns to scale.
  • The output doubles, so that’s a fixed return to scale.
  • The output doesn’t double, so you are getting decreasing returns to scale.
The following is a graphical depiction of economies of scale where the average cost of input resources is compared with the output value:

https://preview.redd.it/9oed4h3co8931.png?width=602&format=png&auto=webp&s=826968afd6d7ae0fcfab0120a73bba60bba87f5a
So, what is going on here?

  • When you want to increase your output from Q to Q2, your cost of production decreases from C to C1.
  • When you increase your output beyond Q2, the cost of production increases.
The implications of this are pretty staggering. The graph shows that until a particular limit, large corporations can actually increase their output value by decreasing the average cost of their input resources!

How does this apply to mining pools?

Larger and more powerful mining pools can leverage the economies of scale by, dollar-for-dollar, generating more hash-rate than other pools even if they spend the same amount of money.

Advantages that powerful mining pools have in a POW system
  • They can use their superior hashrate to mine more blocks and gain more rewards.
  • They can use the rewards to buy even more powerful ASICs and GPUs to give them an even greater advantage.
  • They can use economies of scale to generate more hashrate for the same amount of money as their competitors.
So, as you can see, powerful mining pools have a clear advantage in this ecosystem, which makes it a lot more centralized that you’d want to believe.

How POS mitigates this problem
POS mitigates this problem by making the mining process completely virtual. You are not using your computational power to mine resources anymore, you are merely staking your money. While in a POW system, large pools can generate more hashrate from a dollar, in a staking system, one dollar is still one dollar. Economies of scale don’t apply here.

This is one of the biggest reason why a lot of the newer blockchains, including FLETA, have chosen a staking model. A truly decentralized network will be essential to their success and staking mechanisms can achieve that far more efficiently than traditional crypto mining. FLETA uses a faster and more secure variation of the POS algorithm called Proof-of-Formulation(POF).

In traditional POS, the entire network takes part in the consensus algorithm. In POF, two sets of actors are chosen from the network:
  • Formulators: These are in charge of block generators. Based on their rankings, the Formulators will each get an opportunity to generate a block.
  • Observers: These nodes do real-time confirmation of the generated blocks and prevent double spending. Five observer nodes are assigned to each Formulator group. At least three of out the five observers need to sign off on a generated block for it to be confirmed.

You can read this article to gain a deeper understanding of POF. POF has so far achieved a throughput of 15,000 transactions per second (tested and verified) which is a lot faster than Ethereum (15–20 transactions per second) and EOS (max of 3,996 transactions per second).
submitted by fleta-official to fletachain [link] [comments]

Greg Maxwell /u/nullc (CTO of Blockstream) has sent me two private messages in response to my other post today (where I said "Chinese miners can only win big by following the market - not by following Core/Blockstream."). In response to his private messages, I am publicly posting my reply, here:

Note:
Greg Maxell nullc sent me 2 short private messages criticizing me today. For whatever reason, he seems to prefer messaging me privately these days, rather than responding publicly on these forums.
Without asking him for permission to publish his private messages, I do think it should be fine for me to respond to them publicly here - only quoting 3 phrases from them, namely: "340GB", "paid off", and "integrity" LOL.
There was nothing particularly new or revealing in his messages - just more of the same stuff we've all heard before. I have no idea why he prefers responding to me privately these days.
Everything below is written by me - I haven't tried to upload his 2 PMs to me, since he didn't give permission (and I didn't ask). The only stuff below from his 2 PMs is the 3 phrases already mentioned: "340GB", "paid off", and "integrity". The rest of this long wall of text is just my "open letter to Greg."
TL;DR: The code that maximally uses the available hardware and infrastructure will win - and there is nothing Core/Blockstream can do to stop that. Also, things like the Berlin Wall or the Soviet Union lasted for a lot longer than people expected - but, conversely, the also got swept away a lot faster than anyone expected. The "vote" for bigger blocks is an ongoing referendum - and Classic is running on 20-25% of the network (and can and will jump up to the needed 75% very fast, when investors demand it due to the inevitable "congestion crisis") - which must be a massive worry for Greg/Adam/Austin and their backers from the Bilderberg Group. The debate will inevitably be decided in favor of bigger blocks - simply because the market demands it, and the hardware / infrastructure supports it.
Hello Greg Maxwell nullc (CTO of Blockstream) -
Thank you for your private messages in response to my post.
I respect (most of) your work on Bitcoin, but I think you were wrong on several major points in your messages, and in your overall economic approach to Bitcoin - as I explain in greater detail below:
Correcting some inappropriate terminology you used
As everybody knows, Classic or Unlimited or Adaptive (all of which I did mention specifically in my post) do not support "340GB" blocks (which I did not mention in my post).
It is therefore a straw-man for you to claim that big-block supporters want "340GB" blocks. Craig Wright may want that - but nobody else supports his crazy posturing and ridiculous ideas.
You should know that what actual users / investors (and Satoshi) actually do want, is to let the market and the infrastructure decide on the size of actual blocks - which could be around 2 MB, or 4 MB, etc. - gradually growing in accordance with market needs and infrastructure capabilities (free from any arbitrary, artificial central planning and obstructionism on the part of Core/Blockstream, and its investors - many of whom have a vested interest in maintaining the current debt-backed fiat system).
You yourself (nullc) once said somewhere that bigger blocks would probably be fine - ie, they would not pose a decentralization risk. (I can't find the link now - maybe I'll have time to look for it later.) I found the link:
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/43mond/even_a_year_ago_i_said_i_though_we_could_probably/
I am also surprised that you now seem to be among those making unfounded insinuations that posters such as myself must somehow be "paid off" - as if intelligent observers and participants could not decide on their own, based on the empirical evidence, that bigger blocks are needed, when the network is obviously becoming congested and additional infrastructure is obviously available.
Random posters on Reddit might say and believe such conspiratorial nonsense - but I had always thought that you, given your intellectual abilities, would have been able to determine that people like me are able to arrive at supporting bigger blocks quite entirely on our own, based on two simple empirical facts, ie:
  • the infrastructure supports bigger blocks now;
  • the market needs bigger blocks now.
In the present case, I will simply assume that you might be having a bad day, for you to erroneously and groundlessly insinuate that I must be "paid off" in order to support bigger blocks.
Using Occam's Razor
The much simpler explanation is that bigger-block supporters believe will get "paid off" from bigger gains for their investment in Bitcoin.
Rational investors and users understand that bigger blocks are necessary, based on the apparent correlation (not necessarily causation!) between volume and price (as mentioned in my other post, and backed up with graphs).
And rational network capacity planners (a group which you should be in - but for some mysterious reason, you're not) also understand that bigger blocks are necessary, and quite feasible (and do not pose any undue "centralization risk".)
As I have been on the record for months publicly stating, I understand that bigger blocks are necessary based on the following two objective, rational reasons:
  • because I've seen the graphs; and
  • because I've seen the empirical research in the field (from guys like Gavin and Toomim) showing that the network infrastructure (primarily bandwidth and latency - but also RAM and CPU) would also support bigger blocks now (I believe they showed that 3-4MB blocks would definitely work fine on the network now - possibly even 8 MB - without causing undue centralization).
Bigger-block supporters are being objective; smaller-block supporters are not
I am surprised that you no longer talk about this debate in those kind of objective terms:
  • bandwidth, latency (including Great Firewall of China), RAM, CPU;
  • centralization risk
Those are really the only considerations which we should be discussing in this debate - because those are the only rational considerations which might justify the argument for keeping 1 MB.
And yet you, and Adam Back adam3us, and your company Blockstream (financed by the Bilderberg Group, which has significant overlap with central banks and the legacy, debt-based, violence-backed fiat money system that has been running and slowing destroying our world) never make such objective, technical arguments anymore.
And when you make unfounded conspiratorial, insulting insinuations saying people who disagree with you on the facts must somehow be "paid off", then you are now talking like some "nobody" on Reddit - making wild baseless accusations that people must be "paid off" to support bigger blocks, something I had always thought was "beneath" you.
Instead, Occams's Razor suggests that people who support bigger blocks are merely doing so out of:
  • simple, rational investment policy; and
  • simple, rational capacity planning.
At this point, the burden is on guys like you (nullc) to explain why you support a so-called scaling "roadmap" which is not aligned with:
  • simple, rational investment policy; and
  • simple, rational capacity planning
The burden is also on guys like you to show that you do not have a conflict of interest, due to Blockstream's highly-publicized connections (via insurance giant AXA - whose CED is also the Chairman of the Bilderberg Group; and companies such as the "Big 4" accounting firm PwC) to the global cartel of debt-based central banks with their infinite money-printing.
In a nutshell, the argument of big-block supporters is simple:
If the hardware / network infrastructure supports bigger blocks (and it does), and if the market demands it (and it does), then we certainly should use bigger blocks - now.
You have never provided a counter-argument to this simple, rational proposition - for the past few years.
If you have actual numbers or evidence or facts or even legitimate concerns (regarding "centralization risk" - presumably your only argument) then you should show such evidence.
But you never have. So we can only assume either incompetence or malfeasance on your part.
As I have also publicly and privately stated to you many times, with the utmost of sincerity: We do of course appreciate the wealth of stellar coding skills which you bring to Bitcoin's cryptographic and networking aspects.
But we do not appreciate the obstructionism and centralization which you also bring to Bitcoin's economic and scaling aspects.
Bitcoin is bigger than you.
The simple reality is this: If you can't / won't let Bitcoin grow naturally, then the market is going to eventually route around you, and billions (eventually trillions) of investor capital and user payments will naturally flow elsewhere.
So: You can either be the guy who wrote the software to provide simple and safe Bitcoin scaling (while maintaining "reasonable" decentralization) - or the guy who didn't.
The choice is yours.
The market, and history, don't really care about:
  • which "side" you (nullc) might be on, or
  • whether you yourself might have been "paid off" (or under a non-disclosure agreement written perhaps by some investors associated the Bilderberg Group and the legacy debt-based fiat money system which they support), or
  • whether or not you might be clueless about economics.
Crypto and/or Bitcoin will move on - with or without you and your obstructionism.
Bigger-block supporters, including myself, are impartial
By the way, my two recent posts this past week on the Craig Wright extravaganza...
...should have given you some indication that I am being impartial and objective, and I do have "integrity" (and I am not "paid off" by anybody, as you so insultingly insinuated).
In other words, much like the market and investors, I don't care who provides bigger blocks - whether it would be Core/Blockstream, or Bitcoin Classic, or (the perhaps confusingly-named) "Bitcoin Unlimited" (which isn't necessarily about some kind of "unlimited" blocksize, but rather simply about liberating users and miners from being "limited" by controls imposed by any centralized group of developers, such as Core/Blockstream and the Bilderbergers who fund you).
So, it should be clear by now I don't care one way or the other about Gavin personally - or about you, or about any other coders.
I care about code, and arguments - regardless of who is providing such things - eg:
  • When Gavin didn't demand crypto proof from Craig, and you said you would have: I publicly criticized Gavin - and I supported you.
  • When you continue to impose needless obstactles to bigger blocks, then I continue to criticize you.
In other words, as we all know, it's not about the people.
It's about the code - and what the market wants, and what the infrastructure will bear.
You of all people should know that that's how these things should be decided.
Fortunately, we can take what we need, and throw away the rest.
Your crypto/networking expertise is appreciated; your dictating of economic parameters is not.
As I have also repeatedly stated in the past, I pretty much support everything coming from you, nullc:
  • your crypto and networking and game-theoretical expertise,
  • your extremely important work on Confidential Transactions / homomorphic encryption.
  • your desire to keep Bitcoin decentralized.
And I (and the network, and the market/investors) will always thank you profusely and quite sincerely for these massive contributions which you make.
But open-source code is (fortunately) à la carte. It's mix-and-match. We can use your crypto and networking code (which is great) - and we can reject your cripple-code (artificially small 1 MB blocks), throwing it where it belongs: in the garbage heap of history.
So I hope you see that I am being rational and objective about what I support (the code) - and that I am also always neutral and impartial regarding who may (or may not) provide it.
And by the way: Bitcoin is actually not as complicated as certain people make it out to be.
This is another point which might be lost on certain people, including:
And that point is this:
The crypto code behind Bitcoin actually is very simple.
And the networking code behind Bitcoin is actually also fairly simple as well.
Right now you may be feeling rather important and special, because you're part of the first wave of development of cryptocurrencies.
But if the cryptocurrency which you're coding (Core/Blockstream's version of Bitcoin, as funded by the Bilderberg Group) fails to deliver what investors want, then investors will dump you so fast your head will spin.
Investors care about money, not code.
So bigger blocks will eventually, inevitably come - simply because the market demand is there, and the infrastructure capacity is there.
It might be nice if bigger blocks would come from Core/Blockstream.
But who knows - it might actually be nicer (in terms of anti-fragility and decentralization of development) if bigger blocks were to come from someone other than Core/Blockstream.
So I'm really not begging you - I'm warning you, for your own benefit (your reputation and place in history), that:
Either way, we are going to get bigger blocks.
Simply because the market wants them, and the hardware / infrastructre can provide them.
And there is nothing you can do to stop us.
So the market will inevitably adopt bigger blocks either with or without you guys - given that the crypto and networking tech behind Bitcoin is not all that complex, and it's open-source, and there is massive pent-up investor demand for cryptocurrency - to the tune of multiple billions (or eventually trillions) of dollars.
It ain't over till the fat lady sings.
Regarding the "success" which certain small-block supports are (prematurely) gloating about, during this time when a hard-fork has not happened yet: they should bear in mind that the market has only begun to speak.
And the first thing it did when it spoke was to dump about 20-25% of Core/Blockstream nodes in a matter of weeks. (And the next thing it did was Gemini added Ethereum trading.)
So a sizable percentage of nodes are already using Classic. Despite desperate, irrelevant attempts of certain posters on these forums to "spin" the current situation as a "win" for Core - it is actually a major "fail" for Core.
Because if Core/Blocksteam were not "blocking" Bitcoin's natural, organic growth with that crappy little line of temporary anti-spam kludge-code which you and your minions have refused to delete despite Satoshi explicitly telling you to back in 2010 ("MAX_BLOCKSIZE = 1000000"), then there would be something close to 0% nodes running Classic - not 25% (and many more addable at the drop of a hat).
This vote is ongoing.
This "voting" is not like a normal vote in a national election, which is over in one day.
Unfortunately for Core/Blockstream, the "voting" for Classic and against Core is actually two-year-long referendum.
It is still ongoing, and it can rapidly swing in favor of Classic at any time between now and Classic's install-by date (around January 1, 2018 I believe) - at any point when the market decides that it needs and wants bigger blocks (ie, due to a congestion crisis).
You know this, Adam Back knows this, Austin Hill knows this, and some of your brainwashed supporters on censored forums probably know this too.
This is probably the main reason why you're all so freaked out and feel the need to even respond to us unwashed bigger-block supporters, instead of simply ignoring us.
This is probably the main reason why Adam Back feels the need to keep flying around the world, holding meetings with miners, making PowerPoint presentations in English and Chinese, and possibly also making secret deals behind the scenes.
This is also why Theymos feels the need to censor.
And this is perhaps also why your brainwashed supporters from censored forums feel the need to constantly make their juvenile, content-free, drive-by comments (and perhaps also why you evidently feel the need to privately message me your own comments now).
Because, once again, for the umpteenth time in years, you've seen that we are not going away.
Every day you get another worrisome, painful reminder from us that Classic is still running on 25% of "your" network.
And everyday get another worrisome, painful reminder that Classic could easily jump to 75% in a matter of days - as soon as investors see their $7 billion wealth starting to evaporate when the network goes into a congestion crisis due to your obstructionism and insistence on artificially small 1 MB blocks.
If your code were good enough to stand on its own, then all of Core's globetrotting and campaigning and censorship would be necessary.
But you know, and everyone else knows, that your cripple-code does not include simple and safe scaling - and the competing code (Classic, Unlimited) does.
So your code cannot stand on its own - and that's why you and your supporters feel that it's necessary to keep up the censorship and and the lies and the snark. It's shameful that a smart coder like you would be involved with such tactics.
Oppressive regimes always last longer than everyone expects - but they also also collapse faster than anyone expects.
We already have interesting historical precedents showing how grassroots resistance to centralized oppression and obstructionism tends to work out in the end. The phenomenon is two-fold:
  • The oppression usually drags on much longer than anyone expects; and
  • The liberation usually happens quite abruptly - much faster than anyone expects.
The Berlin Wall stayed up much longer than everyone expected - but it also came tumbling down much faster than everyone expected.
Examples of opporessive regimes that held on surprisingly long, and collapsed surpisingly fast, are rather common - eg, the collapse of the Berlin Wall, or the collapse of the Soviet Union.
(Both examples are actually quite germane to the case of Blockstream/Core/Theymos - as those despotic regimes were also held together by the fragile chewing gum and paper clips of denialism and censorship, and the brainwashed but ultimately complacent and fragile yes-men that inevitably arise in such an environment.)
The Berlin Wall did indeed seem like it would never come down. But the grassroots resistance against it was always there, in the wings, chipping away at the oppression, trying to break free.
And then when it did come down, it happened in a matter of days - much faster than anyone had expected.
That's generally how these things tend to go:
  • oppression and obstructionism drag on forever, and the people oppressing freedom and progress erroneously believe that Core/Blockstream is "winning" (in this case: Blockstream/Core and you and Adam and Austin - and the clueless yes-men on censored forums like r\bitcoin who mindlessly support you, and the obedient Chinese miners who, thus far, have apparently been to polite to oppose you) ;
  • then one fine day, the market (or society) mysteriously and abruptly decides one day that "enough is enough" - and the tsunami comes in and washes the oppressors away in the blink of an eye.
So all these non-entities with their drive-by comments on these threads and their premature gloating and triumphalism are irrelevant in the long term.
The only thing that really matters is investors and users - who are continually applying grassroots pressure on the network, demanding increased capacity to keep the transactions flowing (and the price rising).
And then one day: the Berlin Wall comes tumbling down - or in the case of Bitcoin: a bunch of mining pools have to switch to Classic, and they will do switch so fast it will make your head spin.
Because there will be an emergency congestion crisis where the network is causing the price to crash and threatening to destroy $7 billion in investor wealth.
So it is understandable that your supports might sometimes prematurely gloat, or you might feel the need to try to comment publicly or privately, or Adam might feel the need to jet around the world.
Because a large chunk of people have rejected your code.
And because many more can and will - and they'll do in the blink of an eye.
Classic is still out there, "waiting in the wings", ready to be installed, whenever the investors tell the miners that it is needed.
Fortunately for big-block supporters, in this "election", the polls don't stay open for just one day, like in national elections.
The voting for Classic is on-going - it runs for two years. It is happening now, and it will continue to happen until around January 1, 2018 (which is when Classic-as-an-option has been set to officially "expire").
To make a weird comparison with American presidential politics: It's kinda like if either Hillary or Trump were already in office - but meanwhile there was also an ongoing election (where people could change their votes as often as they want), and the day when people got fed up with the incompetent incumbent, they can throw them out (and install someone like Bernie instead) in the blink of an eye.
So while the inertia does favor the incumbent (because people are lazy: it takes them a while to become informed, or fed up, or panicked), this kind of long-running, basically never-ending election favors the insurgent (because once the incumbent visibly screws up, the insurgent gets adopted - permanently).
Everyone knows that Satoshi explicitly defined Bitcoin to be a voting system, in and of itself. Not only does the network vote on which valid block to append next to the chain - the network also votes on the very definition of what a "valid block" is.
Go ahead and re-read the anonymous PDF that was recently posted on the subject of how you are dangerously centralizing Bitcoin by trying to prevent any votes from taking place:
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/4hxlquhoh_a_warning_regarding_the_onset_of_centralised/
The insurgent (Classic, Unlimited) is right (they maximally use available bandwidth) - while the incumbent (Core) is wrong (it needlessly throws bandwidth out the window, choking the network, suppressing volume, and hurting the price).
And you, and Adam, and Austin Hill - and your funders from the Bilderberg Group - must be freaking out that there is no way you can get rid of Classic (due to the open-source nature of cryptocurrency and Bitcoin).
Cripple-code will always be rejected by the network.
Classic is already running on about 20%-25% of nodes, and there is nothing you can do to stop it - except commenting on these threads, or having guys like Adam flying around the world doing PowerPoints, etc.
Everything you do is irrelevant when compared against billions of dollars in current wealth (and possibly trillions more down the road) which needs and wants and will get bigger blocks.
You guys no longer even make technical arguments against bigger blocks - because there are none: Classic's codebase is 99% the same as Core, except with bigger blocks.
So when we do finally get bigger blocks, we will get them very, very fast: because it only takes a few hours to upgrade the software to keep all the good crypto and networking code that Core/Blockstream wrote - while tossing that single line of 1 MB "max blocksize" cripple-code from Core/Blockstream into the dustbin of history - just like people did with the Berlin Wall.
submitted by ydtm to btc [link] [comments]

Breakdown of the Mining Pool Ecosystem as it currently stands, and why the smaller pools are better than you think.

Hi NIM nation!
The best Proof of Work (PoW) coins have distributed mining networks. Bitcoin has many pools with large amounts of users mining on the network, yet the highest pool hashrate in percentages is BTC.com with only 25% of the hashrate. Exchanges like coins with distributed mining networks like BTC, as it means the risk of a 51% attack on the network by a pool is minimal.
Nimiq, not dissimilar to many other young projects, has a very skewed mining distribution. At the time of writing, beeppool currently has over 51% of the network hashrate, and Skypool combines with Beeppool to claim over 80% of the total hashrate in the last 24 hours. Large exchanges generally frown upon centralised networks like this as they feel they aren't as secure as other networks.
This post will talk about the different pools available for Nimiq mining, and why the Big 2 aren't necessarily the best bang for your mining buck right now if you're a long term miner. Before that, let's start with the big 2
Beeppool
Beeppool is the largest Nimiq mining pool, owned and operated by Blub. They have the best performing mining clients available, and the clients are smart clients capable of verifying transactions so no chance of a 51% attack by Beeppool... but the pool is currently closed due to an effort by Blub to decentralise the network anyway, as he knows it's unhealthy for a coin to have a centralised mining network incase a pool goes down. The fee was raised from 0.7% to 1% on top of this. The pool also only offers manual payouts, which are done whenever Blub gets around to them (usually 1 - 2 times a day). The pool is reliable overall, but being shut off to new users means the hashrate it is at now will most likely stay that way until it is reopened - maybe even drop if users decide to leave to support smaller pools.
Skypool
Skypool offers a variety of mining clients through it's own closed source propriety mining client. It is not a smart client (capable of verifying transactions and receiving jobs on its own), however pool operator Azard claims that the pool operates on a P2P network so a 51% attack isn't possible. Due to the clients being closed sourced, it is impossible to verify this. They were the first Nimiq pool on the block, so they have a lot of first mover advantage. But in their short history they've been plagued by server issues, making the pool unreliable. They also had "hashrate spoofing attacks", which meant the spoofers received more NIM than they should have. This NIM was never distributed to other miners, which made members of the community question what they did with it. They also have a 1% fee, and payout only once a day.
So the two biggest mining pools only offer payouts one - two times a day at a certain time, which is unusual for many pools. They also have the highest fees out of the pools. This is a point that gets lost among miners new and old, so I want to emphasize this before I continue
Pools with higher hashrates DOES NOT mean that you will receive more NIM than pools with lower hashrates. All it means is that you will receive a more consistent payout.
Why is that important? For short term miners, the consistent payout means that they will be more assured to get the NIM they're mining. But for long term miners, it doesn't matter which pool you choose from - if the hashrate is the same, over time your NIM received will be the same regardless if you're on a small pool or large pool... until the fees kick in.
With that being said, it's time to look at some of the smaller mining pools that I have tested and trialed, and look at why they're more appealing options to a longer term miner.
Sushipool
Sushipool has one of the cleanest UIs out of any mining pool for Nimiq. They also have mining clients for any system based off the smart mining client, which means no 51% attacks for Sushipool - plus a webminer for those who don't want to set up a miner on their computer. The Sushipool webminer was also initially used to support the increasingly popular Tamigochi-like game Nimipets, which uses webmining to generate food for their pets. The pool currently has a 1% fee, and unlike the Big 2 pools, it offers automatic payouts for balances over 10 NIM every 3 hours! It also has servers based over the world as well, allowing low ping connections for most users. It has everything the bigger pools have, plus a nice UI on their website and automatic payouts with a 0% fee, and a variety of other small features that make it stand out as one of the better smaller pools.
More info at https://sushipool.com
Porkypool
Porkypool doesn't offer the breadth of clients like Sushipool does, but it's standout feature is that it offers a one line script for Linux users to instantly compile the Linux miner for their system to run on Porkypool servers. There's also the option of web mining if you don't want to install, although this is done on the official Nimiq miner at nimiq.com. They offer servers around the world like Sushipool, and while they don't have a 0% fee deal for the first month, they do offer a competitive 0.8% fee, which is lower than the Big 2. They also offer payouts over 10 NIM automatically every hour! The consistent payouts are attractive to those who needs to sell as they mine to cover costs.
More info at https://porkypool.com/
Nimbus
Nimbus is one of the newest pools, and as such it is only supporting Linux miners currently with Windows miners on the way. However, in spite of this, Nimbus offers some of the best performance on a Linux miner that can be found, and they offer a very competitive 0% fee for people who wish to mine with them now. They have a registration system similar to Beeppool, however there is automatic approval so no waiting for the admins to add you. They also have a personalised mining tutorial for those who wish to use Google Cloud Compute's free trial to mine up to potentially 10,000 NIM for effectively free once you register.
More info at https://nimbus.fun/
Nimiqchain
Nimiqchain recently underwent a relaunch, and is now supported by mining clients for every OS as well as a webminer, and the pool is currently operating on a 0% fee! The pool doesn't require registration, and payouts occur every time a block is found for accounts that are over 10 NIM. They have 4 global servers to connect to for low ping, and the new UI design on the website rivals Sushipool for looks. Well worth a look as they offer competitive fees and a wide range of features
More info here - https://pool.nimiqchain.info/
There are also a number of other smaller pools operating, such as Philpool with a competitive 0.5% fee and an easy to use linux script to install. The ones I have spoken about are the ones I have tested and feel comfortable talking about.
I mine with Beep or Skypool already - why should I switch?
Few reasons
  1. The lower fees mean that over time, if you're in for the long haul you will receive more NIM in pocket and less going to the pool runners. Remember, consistent payouts from larger pools only truly affects short term miners, long term miners will find the payouts average out over time... and besides, if your chosen pool ends up getting a higher hashrates, then the payouts will become more consistent as a result! Win win for everyone
  2. It makes the network more appealing for larger exchanges, and outsider looking in. More exchanges/more outsiders wanting in = more adoption, circulation and use of Nimiq. I'll let you figure out why that's important ;)
  3. The automatic payouts and reliability of the timing of the smaller pool payouts means that in the event that something happens to the pool admins for Beep or Sky, or the pool goes down, you will still be receiving most of your hard earned NIM as you can get your payouts more often. Just ask anyone who tried to withdraw NIM from TradeSatoshi over the last week how frustrating/nerve wrecking it is to have NIM in limbo.
To see the pool hashrates in real time, visit https://poolwatch.info/ for more info. Please note that it uses a logarithmic graph so even if they appear close, they might not be as close as they seem :)
submitted by Mr-Clarke to Nimiq [link] [comments]

How to make your first investment in SPDR and generate revenue with masternodes and other amazing news

How to make your first investment in SPDR and generate revenue with masternodes and other amazing news
Welcome to the weekly blog section of the SPIDER VPS team, blog section where we will talk about the development of our platform. For us, it is very important to have a space dedicated to the weekly updates of our project, as we demonstrate that our commitment and our effort is real and that we want to deliver a project 100% dedicated to our community.
For this day’s section, we will talk about how you, as a young investor, will be able to invest directly in our currency and generate income with our masternodes system.We would also like to show the progression of our marketing campaign,new services and partnerships are being added everyday in order for spider coin to “reach out every corner”.We seek to be the best project of the moment. You are welcome to join us and find out how our project is right now, its development and movement in the community,which is the most important thing because we can do any kind of positive development but if we do not have the support of our community and investors we can not move forward so all our progress we owe to you , our faithful and big family.

First investments in SPDR

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First we’ll talk about why it’s a good option for you to invest in our project. We are currently among the 20 best masternode coins of the moment as we have a current volume of 24 hours of more than 23.70 BTC. Also in such a short time we were listed in coinmarketcap. This is a great joy for us because many know that being on the list in such a short time in coinmarketcap is a challenge that only a few can achieve. To list a project on CMC they must have a very good volume of trade because CMC does a very deep study to know if a currency can be listed with them and they listed SPDR almost immediately showing that it is a project worth believing in and investing in. This makes us understand that we have a growing community that believes in us and fully trusts that we are a project with a very strong base. With such a large percentage of currencies closed, we have a very good decrease in ROI that will give more price and stability to our currency, in just fifteen days we saw how the price of our currency doubled compared to its value, which is amazing. I will show it in the following graph, because the young investors to whom this post is addressed need to know why it is a good idea to invest in us and what are the great advantages of doing so… We know we still have a long way to go, but we work day by day constantly refining our platform and telling only the truth to our community.

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SPDR has been a very innovative concept because you can acquire it thanks to its hybrid algo that has mining POW and POS staking/masternode system which means that investors can choose either to mine their coins with their Gpu’s or stake them/run masternodes by themselves or by using our trusted partners that offer shared masternode services and earn a passive income from a coin in constant growth..
As a second point we will talk about how these shared masternodes work because they are the most used at moment.You do not need to have all the collateral to acquire rewards because you can invest in what you want and buy a seat available to duplicate those coins to get to have your own node in this way but this is what we will talk about. Then, as I said, let’s talk about the fact that SPDR was able to list in an exchange very early on, which is also amazing since part of the pre-sale was done in CREX24. Our team was very assertive in listing with this great exchange because it is very respectable nowadays, it has a daily volume of 192 BTC and by the way our currency is in the number one position, after a while we decided that it was time to expand and we needed another exchange so we chose CryptoBridge which has a current volume of 52 BTC and has earned the affection of many for its great system together with the chain of blocks of Bitshares ,our coin here is ranked in the top 10.

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CREX24

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CryptoBridge

About our shared, instant masternodes partners


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Every day more and more partners join our project so this time we will talk about all the shared masternode services which have brought many benefits to the projects because they do something that is a true for many masternode investors which is that not many of them know the technical parts of how to host a masternode, and with those platforms they can do it for a percentage cost of their hosted currencies or simply because they are investors who want to expand their portfolio and want to invest in many currencies. Many of this services(if they agree with the coin teams) run instant nodes.What is an istant node? Basically it is a masternode running in the background which gives instant rewards to all members that join a shared pool. If there are for example 3500 coins in the pool but no istant node running then all users will get staking rewards only. If there is an instant node running than all users will get 50% of masternode rewards shared between them.

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service offers an instant shared masternodes for SPDR.
Check out ultimate features:
• 0-click-masternode-launch (tm)
• full automation
• instant masternode join
• instant rewards
• instant withdrawal
• no deposit or withdrawal fee
• instant auto-reinvest
• no minimum deposit / masternode join amount
• super-clean and intuitive interface
• referral system
Join the shared masternode in 2 clicks:
Click 1 — Login with your social network account: Facebook, Twitter, Google supported (don’t forget to confirm your email).
Click 2 — Deposit your SPDR coins.
You will start to receive rewards instantly!
Visit https://stackofstake.com/ and explore the ultimate masternode experience!
Got questions or suggestions? Join our official Discord server Need support? Feel free to report any issues to [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).


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Established in January 2018 and offering the largest community in the masternode space, Midas are a highly trusted and reputable investments platform, and through this listing SPDR endorse their service.
Invest through the Midas Investment Platform — https://p.midas.investments/
  1. Earn rewards instantly using the SPDR instant share held at the Midas platform.
  2. Manage your investments on the Midas platform, providing regular and consistent payouts.
  3. Instant and automated deposits and withdrawals, giving you full control over your investments.
  4. Industry low fees, offering a three tiered fee structure to ensure fees stay low. Pay in MIDAS for the lowest fees.
  5. Scaled reinvestment. Reinvest 100% for compound interest, or set a full/partial automated withdrawal to your wallet.
Midas become the first to offer a complete investment ecosystem
Investors with Midas gain the unique ability to utilize a combination of platforms to research, trade and invest your favourite projects.
Research — Follow the latest updates from your favourite projects with content published directly on https://mn.investments/ from the teams themselves.
Trade — Have you found the investment you want to make. Trade directly on Midex, the exchange operated by Midas — https://dex.midas.investments/
Invest — Invest your coins on the Midas platform https://p.midas.investments/, the intuitive and easy-to-manage platform offered by Midas.
In this great platform there are so far 9 masternodes installed
We hope to integrate SPDR to other Midas platforms very soon!
Discord


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All the SPIDER investors have now 2 weeks with no fees at the trttNodes platform
What does the service offer:
INVESTMENT IN MASTERNODE POOLS
- Investments with no limitations or barriers — starting from 10 EUR minimum value and no cap on maximum investment.
- Investment pools — no shares, seats or dedicated masternodes, your investment will be treated as one position and always get it’s fair rewards.
- Instant rewards — no waiting for the first rewards or masternode filling, get paid 4 times a day, on every 6 hours
- Instant withdrawals — no coins locked for days and waiting for replacement.
- Compound interest by Reinvesting — enable “Re-invest” feature and get the accumulated rewards automatically added to your investment.
- Flexible management — you can add more coins to running investment or withdraw from it any amount, whenever you wish.
- Low fees — 5 EUmonth flat fee per masternode and 4% on rewards for the amounts less that full MN.
- Fees paid in TRTT — your coins won’t be sold on the market and drive the price down.
- Team dedicated to investors
COLD WALLET MASTERNODE HOSTING
- No tech Knowledge needed
- 3-clicks setup
- Special launch offer — only 0.49€/Month
- Fees charged daily in TRTT
- 24/7 service
* Special offer will be valid as long as we continue in beta phase
Guides
How to invest with trttNodes (new UI)
Cold Nodes setup at trttNodes (new UI)
Discord


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Discord

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About Snode:
What Snode offers:
  1. HQ Services: Shared/instant/dedicated/trustless hosting
  2. Security: Secured platform and users are protected by 2FA for every task
  3. User-friendly dashboard https://dashboard.snode.co/masternodes/reservation
  4. Low fee, no deposit no withdraw free, 20% referral bonus
  5. Transparency: Investors can track information of all running MNs https://dashboard.snode.co/masternodes/running
  6. Instant payout: The rewards are released as soon as they are spendable.
  7. Auto Reinvestment with our Web Wallet
  8. Ticket system: We provide instant support 24/7 via ticket system
  9. SND Payment: You can choose to pay the fee in SND instead of your invested coins
On this platform there are currently 5 masternodes running
Join now MN
Snode discord

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With help of this service you can deploy Spider Masternodes
for only $3.90 per month without any technical knowledge.
On this platform there are currently 1 masternodes running
Website


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FlitsNode Mobile Masternode Service
  • We are glad to announce that FlitsNode has listed us on their mobile app.
  • NOW you can host your masternodes at FlitsNode mobile app for only $3.49/Month if paid in FLS or $5.99/Month if paid in another currency!
What benefits does FlitsNode offer:
  1. No coding needed
  2. Start a masternode with just a few clicks
  3. Super fast and convenient
  4. Mobile Staking enabled
  5. Deposit and Invest Bitcoin
  6. Buy/Sell coins right from the mobile(in upcoming versions)
  7. 10% monthly discount for 10+ nodes
  8. Fees charged daily.
30 days free trial from the registration dateFor further inquiries, please visit FlitsNode
Discord

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one-click masternode platform — GIN Platform
What is the GIN Platform?
The GIN Platform is a web application that allows you to create cold wallet masternodes for Spider coin, without having to deal with servers, terminals or Linux. This lowers the entry barrier to the masternodes market for non-technical people.
How does it work?
The platform automatically creates and configures the server for you in the background. At certain points you are asked for input that links your wallet to the server.


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OS/MN Service “Spider Coin” INSTANT NODES & SHARED NODES & DEDICATED NODES!
What makes SPP different?
https://blog.simplepospool.com/what-makes-simple-pos-pool-different/
  • No minimum deposit
  • Host over 2300 mns
  • Daily Payouts all day long
  • Some payments are almost instant
  • Follow the stakes and rewards in real time
  • User Dashboard to follow all your investment growth
  • 3% Commission for POS and 5% for masternode
  • Instant masternodes
  • Shared masternodes
  • Dedicated masternodes
  • You earn always. Even if the masternode is on pending status, you receive stakes
  • Probably the only pool that pay staking and masternode interest
  • You can follow all activity by watching the addresses they give you
  • Secure Logins
  • 4 tier Referral Program
Discord
Web
Blog
Twitter

SHM Masternodes discord

SHARED MASTERNODE HAS ADDED SPIDER COIN TO THE SERVICE !!!
PAYMENT : EVERY 1 DAYS
MINIMAL DEPOSIT: 350 SPDR ( MN 7000)
Discord
Twitter
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Your reliable partner for Shared Masternode & PoS services!
general info about:
  • 30k active Community
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Shared Masternode & MN Statistics
About Our services :
MDC-Hash offers various services such as MN statistic, staking pool, shared masternode, price updates on coins and lot’s more to come.
About safety :
We use a cold wallet system, all encrypted and secured using the latest technology to ensure our clients assets are never compromised.
About fees and other things.
  1. Our services funded 100% by fiat. So we have lowest fees, Fee for shared MN(and pool) 2% fee on rewards
  2. Instant MN for each coin listed that already has a MN running
  3. All rewards are reinvested automatically
PS : we do not build coins. We only provide info, statistics and pools
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What do have we for you?
MASTERNODE POOLS
  • Minimum Deposit of 1 Coin!
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We are Hosting and Shared MN service mn.gtmcoin.io.
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This is great news that we have in mind and that will be a great boom! not everything is Proof of Stake we also have great news for our investors who work at Proof of Work! We want to announce our great partnership with the AIOMiner platform which we are hoping that in a few days this will become official we have already established with them our enlistment, we also want to work day by day for our miners POW! but for those people who do not know AIOMiner what this is all about? mining software in one GPU for Windows in which you can control your mining from anywhere that is automatically synchronized that generates the best return using WhatToMine.com and make this more profitable for you. They also have a system that we all know that in mining there are times of day that are usually more expensive so it will be configured depends on performance to offer you a better return but the best of all this is that AIOMiner does not charge any commission because each currency is yours but the best of all is that you have a service 24 hours a day support so you do not lose time and generate more revenue because time is money.

WhatToMine has added SPDR to its list Crypto coins mining profit calculator


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For us it is a pride to be listed on this great page because for a long time it has been the excellence for the POW miners that day by day use it to calculate which is the best option of profitability to be able to obtain a better profit of quality coins, what do I mean by this? WhatToMine does an extensive study to determine if a coin is applicable to your platform and for the joy of us we have passed this test and we are in, already for our POW miners may know that they will have the option to draw their own conclusions if mining our coin is good and also this will attract new miners to our network which is something amazing that our family grows so if you are a POW miner please run and do the review and calculate that our coin is your best option. The amazing thing about this page is that it is very accurate and calculates every detail that is presented in a POW mining from the FEES to the cost of energy something very excellent.
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This is the publication for this week, we know that it is a little long but when you do real work and strive to bring the best to your community great things have to be announced and there are many more that will add up day by day! With this, those young investors who want to start investing in our project but were not sure or did not know how to do it we hope that this article has cleared their views about the trasparency and hard work that is being put in our project. Again we welcome you to join our big family and invest in a coin with great capabilities.Thank you for reading!
This is the publication for this week, we know that it is a little long but when you do real work and strive to bring the best to your community great things have to be announced and there are many more that will add up day by day! With this, those young investors who want to start investing in our project but were not sure or did not know how to do it we hope that this article has cleared their views about the trasparency and hard work that is being put in our project. Again we welcome you to join our big family and invest in a coin with great capabilities.Thank you for reading!

Contact us

submitted by SPIDERVPS to u/SPIDERVPS [link] [comments]

Beginner's Guide to Exchanges - Part 2

Beginner’s Guide to Exchanges – Part 2

A little late, but as promised here is Part 2 of the Beginner’s Guide to Exchanges. I would like to sincerely thank everyone for their support and feedback in making these.
Link to Part 1
This time I also made a Google Docs survey in the hopes of sharing the results with the community. I thought we could share what we use as a whole and why redditors choose the exchanges they do. For skeptics (as you all should be), I assure you that I am not collecting personal information. This is for recreation and if you are still wary, then by all means abstain!
Link to Survey
In Part 3 I will be wrapping up this series by covering decentralized, semi-decentralized, and derivative exchanges. Here it goes!

00 – Concepts and Definitions (Continued)

04 – Fiat Exchanges – Canada

QuadrigaCX

Country Linked Bank Transfer Wire Transfer Paypal Credit/Debit Crypto Transfer
CAD Deposit 1%/ Withdraw Free Free Free (Withdraw Only) 1% (Withdraw Only) Free
USD - Free Free (Withdraw Only) - Free
Exchange Type Maker Taker
Fiat .5% .5%
BTC/ETH .2% .2%
Feature Details
2FA Google Authenticator or Email 2FA Available
Wallet Security Undisclosed amount of funds in cold storage
Web Security 3rd Party Security provided by CloudFlare
Bug Bounty Expired $50 bounties
Tier Level Name Email DOB Phone Address Official ID Bank Info Credit Score Limits
Basic Account X X Digital only, Limits Vary
Verified Account X X X X X X Limits Vary

05 – Fiat Exchanges – Europe

CEX.IO

Country Credit/Debit Bank Transfer Crypto Transfer
Europe 3.5%+ €0.24 Deposit €0 / Withdraw €25 (SEPA €10) Free
Russia 5% + ₽ 15.57 - -
UK 3.5%+ £0.20 Deposit £0 / Withdraw £20 (SEPA Free
US 3.5%+ $0.25 Deposit $0 / Withdraw $50 Deposit $0 / Withdraw 1%
Exchange Type Maker Taker
All Currencies 0% .20%
Feature Details
2FA Google Authenticator Available
Wallet Security Undisclosed amount of funds in cold storage
Credit Card Data Overseen by 3rd Party Kyte Consultants
Web Security SSL Certificates and Encrypted Personal Data
Tier Level Name Email DOB Phone Address ID + Photo Bank Info KYC Limits
Basic Account X X X Digital only
Verified Account X X X X X X $10,000 Daily/$100,000 Monthly

BTC-E / XBTC-E

Country Credit/Debit Bank Transfer Paypal
Europe - SEPA - Deposit .5% / Withdraw 1% (€100 min) -
Russia 6% 6% -
US 7% Deposit .5% ($20 min) / Withdraw 1% ($100 min) 7%
Exchange Type Maker Taker
All Currencies .20% .20%
Feature Details
2FA Google Authenticator Available
Password Expiration Must be changed every 6 months
DDoS Protection 3rd Party Security Services provided by CloudFlare
Bug Bounty Yes at xBTCe
Tier Level Name Email DOB Phone Address Official ID Bank Info KYC Limits
Verified User X X X X X No Stated Limits

Liqui.io

Exchange Type Maker Taker
All Digital Currencies 0.1% .25%
Feature Details
2FA Google Authenticator Available
Bug Bounty Reported bounty posted on HackerOne (unconfirmed)

06 – Fiat Exchanges – South Korea

안녕하세요 여러분! 혹시 우리 한국인 친구 이 보고서를 한국어로 읽고 싶어한다면 알려주세요. 관심이 많이 있다면 간단한 한국어 보고서도 만들 수 있습니다. This year, ETH has taken off like a rocket in the Land of the Morning Calm. With a population of just 50 million, South Koreans account for almost 30% of daily ETH trade volume. Even more surprising is that currently the daily volume of ETH is about 5 times higher than that of Bitcoin on Korean exchanges. Since demand is high, ETH is trading at a premium on Korean exchanges. Some users have been talking about capitalizing off this imbalance by trading on arbitrage between exchanges. For those who have no connection to Korea and hope to do so, I have bad news – all Korean exchanges require a National ID number and access to a Korean bank account. This makes Korean exchanges virtually closed to Korean nationals and those with long-term visas. Sorry everyone.

Bithumb

Coinone

Korbit

07 – Fiat Exchanges – China

With a great deal of anticipation, major Chinese exchanges started trading ETH this summer. Since these exchanges deal huge volumes of Bitcoin already, naturally it was expected that they invest heavily into ETH as well. So far this hasn’t quite lived up to the hype with many exchanges still favoring Bitcoin, Litecoin, Altcoins, and even Ethereum Classic (Gulp). Three of these exchanges underwent inspections by the Peoples Bank of China earlier this year and will be working closely with the government to ease fears of money laundering and market manipulation. There are a lot of Chinese sites, and since my Chinese is non-existent this list is basically just for name recognition. In many ways these sites are very similar in regards to security, verification, and fees compared to their western counterparts; just marketed at a different audience and currency. If users are seriously interested in these exchanges and making reviews, please contribute or ask!

OK Coin

Huobi

CH-BTC

Yunbi

08 – Coinswaps & Cryto-converters

ShapeShift

Changelly

submitted by poop_dragon to ethtrader [link] [comments]

Mining Pool Shares, Difficulty and Luck Explained How do cryptocurrency mining pools work? 7 DAY$-24/HR$ - BITCOIN MINING EXPERIMENT - See How Much ... Beginners Guide to Mining Coinye Coin on a Pool. How to Join a Mining Pool

6.37 TH Pool Hashrate 0.00 KH Solo Hashrate 105.37 EH Global Hashrate Pool Percentage of Global Hashrate: 0.00001 % 653659 Block/Round Height 142.83B Current Round Shares Total Paid: 0.00000000 BTC 0 Orphaned Blocks 0 Pending Blocks 0 Blocks Confirmed Thu, 01 Jan 1970 00:00:00 GMT. Last Block Time Digital money that’s instant, private, and free from bank fees. Download our official wallet app and start using Bitcoin today. Read news, start mining, and buy BTC or BCH. ‹ Bitcoin Cash Charts. Market Bitcoin Core (BTC) Price Market Capitalization Money Supply Chain Value Density Price Volatility Activity Daily Transactions Transaction Value Total Transactions Fee Percentage The graph above shows the market share of the most popular bitcoin mining pools. It should only be used as a rough estimate and for various reasons will not be 100% accurate. A large portion of blocks are grouped into the 'Unknown' category. This does not mean an attack on the network, it simply means we have been unable to determine the origin. The table below shows a detailed breakdown of ... Bitcoin Mining Facilities have 5+ year life cycles and are typically restructured warehouses, specially designed for cooling mining rigs. On average, it will take a miner 18 months to breakeven after deploying capital to mining rigs, facility buildout, and electricity expenses. Miners are the main driving force of sell pressure on the Bitcoin Network. They receive all of the newly issued ...

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Mining Pool Shares, Difficulty and Luck Explained

Agenda: Livestream for how mining pools work. What is a mining pool, how's it work, what is pool luck? What are the various payout types and how do they work? How do we know the pool isn’t cheating? Get Coinye Coin for free by mining! All you need is your computer and this simple to follow guide! Coinye Coin is mined using the scrypt algorithm just like Litecoin. GRAPHICS CARD GUIDE: https ... As requested an overview of shares, difficulty and luck. Excuse my appearance as I am still under the weather a bit. More detailed vids to the series coming. Plotting Rig Build: ASRock X399 TAICHI ... One of the risks associated with pool mining is the 51 percent attack problem. If a pool exceeds 51 percent of the network’s hashing power, it can compromise the safety of the entire network ... Antminer s9 setup to bitcoin.com mining pool - S9 Bitcoin Miner Setup. How much profit am I making with my antminer s9? Look at my antminer profit video now to see. SORRY I HAD TO REMAKE THE VIDEO ...

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